Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations
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- ABG: Arterial Blood Gas.
- An arterial blood gas (ABG) test measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery. This test is used to check how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Arterial-Blood-Gases
- ACL: Anticardiolipins (aka Immunoglobins)
- Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/faq/faq1.htm#2
- Ambulatory Electrocardiogram (aka Holter Monitoring)
- An ambulatory electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) records the electrical activity of your heart while you do your usual activities. Ambulatory monitors are referred to by several names, including ambulatory electrocardiogram, ambulatory EKG, Holter monitoring, 24-hour EKG, or cardiac event monitoring. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/Ambulatory-Electrocardiogram
- ANA: Antinuclear Antibody
- An antinuclear antibody (ANA) test measures the amount and pattern of antibodies in your blood that work against your own body (autoimmune reaction). Where to find more information: http://arthritis.webmd.com/Antinuclear-Antibodies-ANA
- Anticoagulant drugs
- Medications used to stop blood clots from getting bigger and to keep new clots from forming; sometimes called blood thinners. Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/docs/Anticoagulants062706-f.pdf
- Antithrombin III
- A protein found in our bloodstream. It controls our clotting mechanism and prevents us from excessive clotting. It functions as a naturally occurring mild blood thinner by blocking the last part of our clotting mechanism and inactivates the clotting protein thrombin (= factor IIa); thus, it is called anti-thrombin.
- Antithrombin III Deficiency (AT-III)
- AT-III deficiency is a disorder that increases the risk for blood clots. It can be (a) acquired, or (b) inherited, or (c) based on a misinterpretation of lab tests (values can be temporarily low at the time of the acute clot or during heparin therapy).
- Unfractionated Heparin Anti-Xa Assay / Low Molecular Weight Heparin Anti-Xa Assay. Where to find more information: http://peir.path.uab.edu/coag/article_23.shtml
- Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS)
- Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome or APS is an autoimmune disorder in which the body recognizes certain normal components of blood and/or cell membranes as foreign substances and produces antibodies against them. Patients with these antibodies may experience blood clots, including heart attacks and strokes, and miscarriages. APS may occur in people with systemic lupus erythematosus, other autoimmune diseases, or in otherwise healthy individuals. Also known as APLS, APLA, Hughes Syndrome or "Sticky Blood."Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/aps.htm
- APSCORE: Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Collaborative Registry
- Where to find more information. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT0007671
- Any of the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
- ASA: Aspirin
- Where to find more information: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/daily-aspirin-therapy/HB00073
- BP: Blood Pressure
- Blood pressure is a measure of how hard the blood pushes against the walls of your arteries as it moves through your body. It's normal for blood pressure to go up and down throughout the day, but if it stays up, you have high blood pressure. Another name for high blood pressure is hypertension. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/
- BT: Bleeding Time
- Bleeding time is a blood test that looks at how fast small blood vessels close to stop you from bleeding. Where to find more information: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003656.htm
- CAPS: Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
- The catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a very rare complication encountered in a subset of patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. This rare syndrome is characterized by the development of multiple blood clots that block small blood vessels in several organs in the body. The organs most commonly affected by these small blood clots include the heart, lungs, nervous system, and kidneys. In many ways, this syndrome is similar to another rare disease, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/caps.htm
- Cardiac Catheterization
- Cardiac catheterization, also called coronary angiogram, is a test to check your heart and coronary arteries. It is used to check blood flow in the coronary arteries , blood flow and blood pressure in the chambers of the heart , find out how well the heart valves work, and check for defects in the way the wall of the heart moves. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/Cardiac-Catheterization
- CBC: Complete Blood Count
- A complete blood count (CBC) gives important information about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood, especially red blood cells , white blood cells , and platelets. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Complete-Blood-Count-CBC
- CCU: Coronary Care Unit
- Most patients suspected of having suffered an acute heart attack are admitted to a hospital's coronary care unit (CCU). Where to find more information: http://www.ehealthmd.com/library/heartattack/HA_ccu.html
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention
- Is a government health care agency whose mission focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease. It is located in Atlanta, GA. Where to find more information: http://www.cdc.gov
- A smaller vein that provides an alternate path for blood to go around the place blocked by a clot.
- A brand name for warfarin, an anticoagulation medicine. Where to find more information: http://www.coumadin.com/
- CRP: C-Reactive Protein
- C-reactive protein appears to be correlated to heart disease risk. Inflammation (swelling) of the arteries has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, heart attack, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide/heart-disease-c-reactive-protein-CRP-testing
- CT: Computed Tomography Scan (Also CAT Scan)
- CT or CAT scans are special x-ray tests that produce cross-sectional images of the body using x-rays and a computer. These images allow the radiologist, a medical doctor who specializes in images of the body, to look at the inside of the body just as you would look at the inside of a loaf of bread by slicing it. This type of special x-ray, in a sense, takes "pictures" of slices of the body so doctors can look right at the area of interest. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/ct_scan/article_em.htm
- Coronary CTA: Coronary Computed Tomography Angiogram
- A coronary computed tomography angiogram (CTA) uses advanced CT technology, along with intravenous (IV) contrast material (dye), to obtain high-resolution, three-dimensional pictures of the moving heart and great vessels. Where to find more information: http://www.clevelandclinic.org/heartcenter/pub/guide/tests/radiograph/ctaresearch.htm
- CVA: Cerebrovascular Accident (aka Stroke)
- A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), occurs when blood supply to part of the brain is disrupted, causing brain cells to die. Where to find more information: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=STROKE
- D-dimer is a fibrin degradation product, a small protein fragment present in the blood after a blood clot is degraded by fibrinolysis. It is so named because it contains two crosslinked D fragments of the fibrinogen protein. Where to find more information: http://www.answers.com/topic/d-dimer
- Doppler Ultrasound
- A Doppler ultrasound test uses reflected sound waves to evaluate blood as it flows through a blood vessel. It helps doctors evaluate blood flow through the major arteries and veins of the arms, legs, and neck. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Doppler-Ultrasound
- DVT: Deep Vein Thrombosis
- A blood clot anywhere in the deep veins of the body. Occurs most often in the legs. May break off and travel to other parts of the body, most commonly the lungs. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/tc/Deep-Vein-Thrombosis-Topic-Overview
- Dx: Diagnosis
- Generally refers both to the process of attempting to determine the identity of a possible disease or disorder and to the opinion reached by this process.
- ECG / EKG: Electrocardiogram
- An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) is a test that checks for problems with the electrical activity of your heart. An EKG translates the heart's electrical activity into line tracings on paper. The spikes and dips in the line tracings are called waves. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/Electrocardiogram
- An echocardiogram (also called an echo) is a type of ultrasound test that uses high-pitched sound waves that are sent through a device called a transducer. The device picks up echoes of the sound waves as they bounce off the different parts of your heart. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/Echocardiogram
- Swelling caused by an accumulation of fluid. Where to find more information: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/edema.html
- EEG: Electroencephalogram
- An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that measures and records the electrical activity of your brain. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/epilepsy/Electroencephalogram-EEG-21508
- ER: Emergency Room
- a medical treatment facility, specialising in acute care of patients who present without prior appointment, either by their own means or by ambulance. The emergency department is usually found in a hospital or other primary care centre.
- A surgical procedure to remove a large clot.
- A blood clot that breaks off from its original site, moves through the bloodstream, and lodges in another blood vessel.
- ESR: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
- The sedimentation rate (sed rate) blood test measures how quickly red blood cells (erythrocytes) settle in a test tube in one hour. The more red cells that fall to the bottom of the test tube in one hour, the higher the sed rate. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Sedimentation-Rate
- Evoked Potential Tests:
- An evoked potential test measures the time it takes for nerves to respond to stimulation. The size of the response is also measured. Nerves from different areas of the body may be tested. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/multiple-sclerosis/evoked-potential-test-for-multiple-sclerosis
- Exercise Stress Test
- A stress test, sometimes called a treadmill test or exercise test, helps a doctor find out how well your heart handles work. As your body works harder during the test, it requires more oxygen, so the heart must pump more blood. The test can show if the blood supply is reduced in the arteries that supply the heart. It also helps doctors know the kind and level of exercise appropriate for a patient. Where to find more information: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4568
- FFP: Fresh Frozen Plasma
- One unit of FFP or thawed plasma is the plasma taken from a unit of whole blood. FFP is frozen within eight hours of collection. FFP contains all coagulation factors in normal concentrations. Where to find more information: http://www.psbc.org/therapy/ffp.htm
- Factor V deficiency
- An inherited bleeding disorder, in which the clotting factor V (five) is low. The disorder is very rare, occurring in only one in 1 million people. This is not the same clinical problem as Factor V Leiden. Where to find more information: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000550.htm
- FVL: Factor V Leiden
- An inherited blood clotting disorder. Five percent of Caucasian Americans have it, 1.2 % of African-Americans. One can be heterozygous (i.e. have one bad gene), homozygous ( i.e. have 2 bad genes) or normal (i.e. not have any bad genes). The genetic test for factor V Leiden has only been available since 1994. Where to find more information: http://www.fvleiden.org
- Hb (Hgb): Hemoglobin
- Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Where to find more information: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003645.htm
- HCT: Hematocrit
- Hematocrit is a blood test that measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells. Where to find more information: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003646.htm
- Having one abnormal gene. If you are heterozygote for Factor V Leiden you have inherited the trait from one parent.
- HIT: Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia
- Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is the development of thrombocytopenia (a low platelet count), due to the administration of various forms of heparin, an anticoagulant. HIT predisposes to thrombosis, the abnormal formation of blood clots inside a blood vessel, and when thrombosis is identified the condition is called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (HITT). HIT is caused by the formation of abnormal antibodies that activate platelets. If someone receiving heparin develops new or worsening thrombosis, or if the platelet count falls, HIT can be confirmed with specific blood tests. Where to find more information: http://www.argatroban.com/argatroban_aboutHIT.htm
- An amino acid found in the blood. High homocysteine levels are a risk factor for blood clots in the veins (DVT, PE) or arteries (heart attack, stroke), and hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). Where to find more information: http://www.medicinenet.com/homocysteine/article.htm
- A rare hereditary disease that causes a deficiency of an enzyme needed to prevent the build up of homocysteine in the blood. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic708.htm
- Having 2 abnormal genes. If you are homozygote (2 bad genes) for Factor V Leiden, you inherited the gene from both parents.
- Hughes Syndrome
- UK name for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome. Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/aps.htm
- Hx: Medical History
- The medical history (abbr. Hx) of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
- A condition where elevated homocysteine levels are present in the blood which may damage the lining of blood vessels, and lead to the formation of blood clots. Where to find more information: http://www-admin.med.uiuc.edu/hematology/PtHomocysteinemia.htm
- IBS: Irritable Bowel Syndrome
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome, also known as Spastic Colon or Mucous Colitis, is a digestive disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the mobility of the intestines (small and large). Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/ibs/irritable-bowel-syndrome
- ICU: Intensive Care Unit
- An intensive care unit, or ICU, is a specialized section of a hospital that provides comprehensive and continuous care for persons who are critically ill and who can benefit from treatment.
- IVIG: Intravenous Immune Globulin
- Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a medication made from grouped donated blood plasma that is used to reduce the risk of infection in people with weakened or impaired immune systems. IVIG contains antibodies to fight bacteria, fungi, and viruses that can cause disease. IVIG can be used as a replacement therapy for people who have too few antibodies to effectively fight infections. For example, IVIG may be used in babies born prematurely who are at risk of complications from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. It can also be used as treatment for immune system problems, such as for those that exist at birth (congenital immunodeficiency). Because immunoglobulin is made from donated blood, it is sometimes in short supply. It is also very expensive. Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/docs/APS-ivig2.pdf
- An immunoglobulins test is done to measure the level of immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, in your blood. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/immunoglobulins
- INR: International Normalized Ratio
- INR is a ratio that helps physicians monitor patients taking anticoagulant medications. The INR is a method of expressing the results of a prothrombin time (PT) blood test. It is based on an international standard that automatically corrects for variations between labs. Thus, using the INR, the PT measurement from one lab can be compared to a PT measurement from any other lab in the world, even if they use different methods to measure PT. The resulting measurement is often referred to as the INR/PT. Where to find more information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_normalized_ratio
- ITP: Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
- Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), also known as primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, is defined as isolated thrombocytopenia with normal bone marrow and the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic282.htm
- LAC: Lupus Anticoagulant (also LA)
- Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against phospholipids (substances in the lining of cells) that prevent blood clotting in a test tube. Persons with these antibodies may have an abnormally high risk of blood clotting. Where to find more information: http://www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/lupus_anticoagulant/glance.html
- LMWH: Low Molecular Weight Heparin
- An injectable form of heparin (a Heparin blood thinner) that is given underneath the skin (= subcutaneously, s.c.). The brand names are Lovenox®, Fragmin®, Innohep®, and others). It is used as an alternative to Coumadin® for dental work and pregnancy. LMWH may be prescribed any time you need to be anti-coagulated but can't take Coumadin®. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Low-molecular-weight-heparins-for-deep-vein-thrombosis
- Lung Function Tests
- Lung function tests (also called pulmonary function tests, or PFTs) evaluate how well your lungs work. The tests determine how much air your lungs can hold, how quickly you can move air in and out of your lungs, and how well your lungs put oxygen into and remove carbon dioxide from your blood. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/asthma/guide/Lung-Function-Tests
- Lytic therapy
- A clot busting medication given in the hospital into the blood vessel to break up clots. Has a risk of bleeding. Drug names are tPA, streptokinase, or urokinase.
- MI: Myocardial Infarction (aka Heart Attack)
- A heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), is permanent damage to the heart muscle. "Myo" means muscle, "cardial" refers to the heart, and "infarction" means death of tissue due to lack of blood supply Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/heart-disease-heart-attacks
- Simply put, micro-clotting, better referred to as "microvascular thrombosis"' describes blood clotting that is occurring in some of the smallest blood vessels in the body. Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/docs/APSFAVol4Winter2007.pdf
- MCTD: Mixed Connective Tissue Disease
- Connective tissue diseases are disorders featuring abnormalities involving the collagen and elastin. Connective tissue diseases are often characterized by a variety of immune abnormalities that are common for each particular type of illness. Where to find more information: http://www.medicinenet.com/mixed_connective_tissue_disease/article.htm
- MRA: Magnetic Resonance Angiogram
- A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) is a type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to provide pictures of blood vessels inside the body. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/Magnetic-Resonance-Angiogram-MRA
- MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body. In many cases MRI gives different information about structures in the body than can be seen with an X-ray, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scan. MRI also may show problems that cannot be seen with other imaging methods. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri
- MS: Multiple Sclerosis
- Multiple sclerosis (or MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that attacks the central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. Symptoms may be mild, such as numbness in the limbs, or severe, such as paralysis or loss of vision. Where to find more information: http://www.nationalmssociety.org
- Stands for Methylene- Tetra- Hydro- Folate- Reductase. Some individuals with the homozygous MTHFR mutation have elevated homocysteine levels. Elevated homocysteine levels are a risk factor for blood clots. The individuals with MTHFR mutations who have normal homocysteine levels are not at increased risk for clots. Thus, the MTHFR mutation by itself is not a clotting disorder. Where to find more information: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene=mthfr
- Multi-infarct (arteriosclerotic) dementia
- There is deterioration in previously normal intellect and / or memory due to repeated clinical or subclinical episodes of cerebral ischemia, infarction or hemorrhage. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3150.htm
- MVP: Mitral Valve Prolapse
- Your mitral valve controls blood flow on the left side of your heart. The valve opens and closes with each heartbeat. It works like a one-way gate, letting blood flow from your upper heart chamber to your lower chamber.
When you have mitral valve prolapse, the valve closes after blood flows through. But the valve bulges backward a little. It looks like a tiny parachute or balloon as it bulges. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/tc/Mitral-Valve-Prolapse-Overview
- Myocardial Infarction
- Known as a heart attack. Myocardium = heart muscle; infarct = cell death caused by blocked blood flow; thus, death of an area of heart muscle. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic327.htm
- Shortened term from thrombophlebitis. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/phlebitis/article_em.htm
- PE: Pulmonary Embolism
- A clot that goes into your lungs making it difficult to breathe. Pulmonary embolism may be fatal. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Pulmonary-Embolism-Topic-Overview
- PET: Positron Emission Tomography
- Positron emission tomography (PET) is a test that uses a special type of camera and a tracer (radioactive chemical) to look at organs in the body. The tracer usually is a substance (such as glucose) that can be used (metabolized) by cells in the body. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Positron-Emission-Tomography
- Bleeding into the skin. Where to find more information: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/petechiae/HQ01208
- PFO: Patent Foramen Ovale
- A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a defect in the septum (wall) between the two upper (atrial) chambers of the heart. Specifically, the defect is an incomplete closure of the atrial septum that results in the creation of a flap or a valve-like opening in the atrial septal wall (see illustration). A PFO is frequent in everyone before birth but seals shut in about 80% of people. Where to find more information: http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/3400/3454.asp?index=11626
- Small particles in the blood that control bleeding; they form clusters to plug small holes in blood vessels and assist in the clotting process. Where to find more information: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003647.htm
- Protein C deficiency
- Protein C
deficiency is an uncommon clotting disorder: approximately 1 per
700 people has inherited protein C deficiency. Since we all have
2 genes for every protein (one from mother and one from father),
people can have 2 normal genes (healthy), one mutated protein S
gene (heterozygous), or two mutated genes (homozygous).
Individuals with protein C deficiency are typically heterozygous. Homozygous individuals have such a severe clotting problem, that they typically die immediately after birth because of clotting everywhere; this is termed " Purpura fulminans ". Protein C deficiency can be caused by more than 100 different mutations in theprotein C gene.
This makes genetic testing for the defect very difficult, time-consuming, and expensive; it is therefore not done in routine clinical practice. A few academic institutions with a special interest in protein C deficiency perform genetic testing for research purposes. In some people protein C deficiency is due to acquired (non-inherited) causes, and may be temporary. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1923.htm
- Protein S deficiency
- Protein S
deficiency is an uncommon clotting disorder: approximately 1 per
500 to 1 per 3,000 people has inherited protein S deficiency.
Since we all have 2 genes for every protein (one from mother and
one from father), people can have 2 normal genes (healthy), one
mutated protein S gene (heterozygous), or two mutated genes
(homozygous). Individuals with protein S deficiency are
typically heterozygous. Homozygous individuals have such a
severe clotting problem, that they typically die immediately
after birth because of clotting everywhere; this is termed "Purpura
Protein S deficiency can be caused by more than 100 different mutations in the protein S gene. This makes genetic testing for the defect very difficult, time-consuming, and expensive; it is therefore not done in routine clinical practice. A few academic institutions with a special interest in protein S deficiency perform genetic testing for research purposes. In some people protein S deficiency is due to acquired (non-inherited) causes, and may be temporary. Where to find more information: http://www.protein.org.uk/
- Prothrombin deficiency
- Prothrombin (= factor II) is one of the approximately 15 clotting proteins that is needed to stop us from bleeding. If you are low in prothrombin, you have a tendency to bleed.
- Prothrombin 20210 mutation
- The prothrombin 20210 mutation (= factor II 20210 mutation) is a very common mutation and is a mild risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (= DVT) and pulmonary embolism (= PE). Where to find more information: http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/110/3/e15
- PT: Prothrombin Time
- The prothrombin time test, also called PT, helps measure how well your blood is able to clot. The test provides a control for long-term anticoagulant therapy that usually involves the use of a coumarin derivative (e.g., Coumadin®). Also known as Protime. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Prothrombin-Time
- PTT: Partial Thromboplastin Time
- This test is used to evaluate part of the clotting system. It is used to monitor heparin therapy. Where to find more information: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003653.htm
- RIND: Reversible ischemic neurologic deficit
- The symptoms last for more than twenty four hours and resolve within three weeks. This term has been used to define what is nothing other than a mild ischemic stroke with no persisting neurological disability. Where to find more information: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/reversible-ischemic-neurologic-deficit/AN00185
- Rx: Prescription
- A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other medical practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient. Prescriptions may include orders to be performed by a patient, caretaker, nurse, pharmacist or other therapist. Commonly, the term prescription is used to mean an order to take certain medications. Prescriptions have legal implications, as they may indicate that the prescriber takes responsibility for the clinical care of the patient and in particular for monitoring efficacy and safety. However, as medications have increasingly become pre–packaged manufactured products and medical practice has become more complex, the scope of meaning of the term "prescription" has broadened to also include clinical assessments, laboratory tests, and imaging studies relevant to optimizing the safety or efficacy.
- SLE: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
- Systemic lupus is the most common form of lupus, and is what most people mean when they refer to "lupus." Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that can damage any part of the body (skin, joints, and/or organs inside the body). Chronic means that the signs and symptoms tend to last longer than six weeks and often for many years. In lupus, something goes wrong with your immune system, which is the part of the body that fights off viruses, bacteria, and germs ("foreign invaders," like the flu). Normally our immune system produces proteins called antibodies that protect the body from these invaders. Autoimmune means your immune system cannot tell the difference between these foreign invaders and your body's healthy tissues ("auto" means "self") and creates autoantibodies that attack and destroy healthy tissue. Where to find more information: http://www.lupus.org/
- SPECT: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography
- A Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) scan is a type of nuclear imaging test that shows how blood flows to tissues and organ. Where to find more information: http://www.mayfieldclinic.com/PE-SPECT.htm
- SNAPS: Seronegative Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
- The term seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome (SNAPS) refers to patients with typical clinical manifestations of the APS but who are negative for a range of aPL antibodies. Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/docs/APSFAVol2Summer2006.pdf
- Sticky Blood
- UK name for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome. Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/aps.htm
- A condition that occurs when oxygen-rich blood is prevented from reaching an area of the brain; can lead to death of brain cells in that area. Where to find more information: http://www.apsfa.org/stroke.htm
- Sx: Symptoms
- Subjective evidence of disease or physical disturbance.
- TEE: Transesophageal Echocardiogram
- The transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) is an alternative means of producing echocardiograms of the heart. Where to find more information: http://www.heartsite.com/html/tee.html
- Thrombolytic agents
- Drugs that can break up large clots; also called clot busters. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic831.htm
- Name for tenderness, pain, redness, and swelling that occur when a clot and inflammation develop in a vein Where to find more information: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/thrombophlebitis.html
- A hereditary or acquired predisposition to develop blood clots. Where to find more information: http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec14/ch173/ch173g.html
- A blood clot that forms within a blood vessel. When the blockage
occurs in a heart artery, it is called a coronary thrombosis. Where to
find more information: http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthinformation/otherhealthtopics
- A stationary blood clot that forms along the wall of a blood vessel. Where to find more information: http://adam.about.com/reports/000282.htm
- TIA: Transient Ischemic Attack
- Often called "mini stroke", but transient in nature – symptoms last less than 48 hours. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/stroke/tc/Transient-Ischemic-Attack-TIA-Topic-Overview
- TTP: Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare life-threatening multisystem disorder that is considered a true medical hematological emergency. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic579.htm
- Tx: Treatment
- Administration or application of remedies to a patient or for a disease or an injury; medicinal or surgical management; therapy.
- UA: Urine Analysis
- A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by the kidneys. A regular urine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms. The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. Where to find more information:http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Urine-Test
- UCTD: Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease
- The term "undifferentiated connective tissue disease" (UCTD) is used to describe people who have symptoms and certain lab test results that look like a systemic autoimmune disorder or connective tissue disease. But they don't have enough of such characteristics to meet the diagnosis for a well-defined connective tissue disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or scleroderma. Thus, they seem to have another, similar disorder that doctors call undifferentiated connective tissue disease. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2937.htm
- ny of the blood vessels that leads blood back to the heart.
- Vena Cava Filter
- A vena cava filter is a device inserted into a major vein to prevent a blood clot from entering the lungs. Where to find more information: http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic762.htm
- A venogram is an X-ray test that takes pictures of blood flow through the veins in a certain area of the body. Where to find more information: http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Venogram
- V/Q Scan: Ventilation Perfusion Scan
- The ventilation-perfusion scan is a nuclear scan so named because it studies both airflow (ventilation) and blood flow (perfusion) in the lungs. The initials V-Q are used in mathematical equations that calculate airflow and blood flow. The purpose of this test is to look for evidence of a blood clot in the lungs, called a pulmonary embolism. Where to find more information: http://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/ventilation-perfusion-scan.shtml
- A blood thinning medicine. Brand name: Coumadin®. Can also be bought as a generic.
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Page last update: 11/13/10
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