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The Antiphospholipid Syndrome

US Pharm. 2008;33(1):HS-23-HS-30. Conclusion: APS is an autoimmune disorder that presents unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment. The revised diagnosis can be simply stated as the presence of one clinical and one laboratory criteria. In practice, the heterogeneous presentation of both clinical and laboratory findings complicates diagnosis. This disorder should always be included in differential diagnosis of persons who have coagulation defects, evidence of vascular thrombosis, and/or history of recurrent miscarriages or fetal losses. Positive laboratory testing should always be confirmed at least 12 weeks apart to verify persistence. The heterogeneous presentation of APS also makes treatment challenging, and, in particular, research clarifying optimal therapy remains lacking. Currently, the mainstay of treatment is anticoagulation in those persons who develop an acute thrombotic event. Although indefinite duration of anticoagulation therapy is recommended, the decision to administer long-term anticoagulation certainly requires judicious clinical evaluation and risk assessment, given the potential hemorrhagic complications of anticoagulation therapy.

Antiphospholipid syndrome

An. Bras. Dermatol. vol.80 no.3 Rio de Janeiro May/June 2005. Antiphospholipid syndrome is an acquired multisystem disorder characterized by recurrent thromboses in the arterial system, venous system, or both. Antiphospholipid syndrome is classified into 2 groups: primary and secondary. Secondary antiphospholipid syndrome is often associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and less frequently with infections, drugs and other diseases. Serologic markers are antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin. The primary diagnostic criteria include arterial thrombosis or venous thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss. About 41% of patients with lupus anticoagulant have skin lesions as the first sign of antiphospholipid syndrome. Cutaneous manifestations include livedo reticularis, cutaneous ulceration and livedo vasculitis. The mainstays of prophylaxis and treatment of thrombosis are anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents.

The "primary" antiphospholipid syndrome: major clinical and serological features.

Medicine (Baltimore). 1989 Nov;68(6):366-74.

Unusual Manifestations of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Reported by Ronald A. AshersonI MD,FACP,MD(Hon)FRCP,FCP(SA)FACR,and Ricard Cervera2 MD,PhD

Anticardiolipin Test and the Antiphospholipid (Hughes) Syndrome: 20 Years and Counting!

© 2004. The Journal of Rheumatology Publishing Company Limited.

The Spectrum of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Matter of Perspective

© 2001. The Journal of Rheumatology Publishing Company Limited.


This page is in Italian.

Medical Progress- Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

PDF File from the New England Journal of Medicine

The antiphospholipid syndrome (Hughes' syndrome)

Last updated 01.08.2005 Written by Dr MY Karim, lecturer in immunology, St Thomas' Hospital and Dr GRV Hughes, consultant physician and rheumatologist, St Thomas' Hospital

Antiphospholipid Syndrome from Pediatrics/Rheumatology

Authored by Barry L Myones, MD, Director of Research, Pediatric Rheumatology Center, Texas Children's Hospital at Houston; Associate Professor, Departments of Pediatrics & Immunology, Pediatric Rheumatology Section, Baylor College of Medicine Adjust dose to maintain an INR in the range of 2.5-3.5.

About thrombosis: thrombophilia: acquired thrombophilia: APS

Another article that supports an INR of 3.0 to 4.0 for APS patients.

Antiphospholipid syndrome: an overview

CMAJ • June 24, 2003; 168 (13) © 2003 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors


by Dr. Ron Ascherson

Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Coagulation Disorder in Women

Posted 01/24/1997 Antiphospholipid (aPL) syndrome, or APS,--a cluster of conditions that includes arterial or venous thromboses and thrombocytopenia, as well as recurrent fetal loss associated with elevation of aPL antibody--has been reported to occur 2-5 times more frequently in women than men. Strong familial associations lead to the suspicion that aPL positivity, estimated to be present in 2% of the population, is a heritable trait in some cases. Currently, 2 major categories of the illness are recognized--primary and secondary. Secondary APS may be associated with autoimmune disease, malignancy, infectious disease, or drug-induced states. Two assays, one for lupus anticoagulant antibodies and the other for anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies, are recognized to be the gold standards for serologic diagnosis of the disease. Despite extensive attempts at international standardization of aCL test results, no consensus exists for a value beyond which the test is considered positive. Interestingly, a "dose-effect" relationship for aCL antibody titers has been noted--higher titers of the antibody correlate with increased numbers of thrombotic events. An experimental assay for antibody against beta 2-glycoprotein 1 (beta-2-GP1), a phospholipid-binding protein, may become the most important assay for aPL. Skin findings in APS include livedo reticularis, ulceration, gangrene, or purpura, and, when present, may be the key to diagnosis of this sometimes insidious syndrome. Anticoagulation, usually with warfarin, is the mainstay of therapy, although steroids, immunosuppressive agents, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, and plasmapheresis may all be beneficial adjunctive therapy.

Euro-Phospholipid on Line

Official Web-site of the "European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies"

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Virtual Medical Centre. Modified: 14/7/2006

Anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome

The MayoFoundation for Medical Education and Research provides the following web link addressing antiphospholipid syndrome.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Last modified Monday, August 10, 2007

Managing antiphospholipid syndrome

Copyright Springhouse Corporation Mar 2004

The Antiphospholipid Story

© 2003. The Journal of Rheumatology Publishing Company Limited.

Old-fashioned detective work

August 20, 2005

*Current News Articles Dealing with APS & Related Problems

This link contains full news articles and many up to date medical journal abstracts dealing with APS and its related diseases. Free Registration is required.

The antiphospholipid syndrome.

Natl Med J India. 2003 Nov-Dec;16(6):311-6. Promotes an INR of 3-4.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) Education

Michael D. Lockshin, MD Attending Rheumatologist, Hospital for Special Surgery Professor of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College Director, Barbara Volcker Center for Women and Rheumatic Disease. In this presentation, Dr. Lockshin provides an explanation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and how it can be treated. He then answers questions submitted by patients in attendance.

Comparison of the primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome: a European Multicenter Study of 114 patients.

Am J Med. 1994 Jan;96(1):3-9.

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